AERO1004 Notes

Engineering Management

Definition

Traditional Definition

the process of getting things done, i.e., achieving objectives by working both with and through people operating in organized groups.

着重在objective上

image-20211110152125410.png

Pros & Cons

The departments at same level are parallel, which means that, some fake information could be delivered parallelly.

However, there can be some methods to provide connections.

Empirical Definition

empirical definition, 以实验、经验为依据的定义

Managerial capabilities can be developed by studying the experiences of other managers, whether or not the situations are similar.

Behavior System Definition

Management is considered to be a system of cultural
relationships involving social change.

着重在interpersonal relationship人人、人和工作的关系上

Decision Theory Definition

a rational approach to decision making using a system of mathematical models and processes, such as operations research and management science.

Management-systems definition

the development of a systems model, characterized by input, processing and output. processing with resources (money, equipment, facilities, personnel, information and material)

Also includes contingency theory (权变理论)

是指每一个组织具有不同的形态,面对不同的情境,需要不同的管理方式。

Management by Objective (MBO)

A system in which employees at all level are given tangible goals and are held accountable for achieving them.

Management Functions

通常5个功能

  • Planning
    • determining what needs to be done, by whom, and by when
    • planning phase includes: objective, program, schedule, budget, forecast, organization structure, policy, procedure, standard
  • Organizing
    • the process of logically grouping activities, delineating authority and responsibilities, and establishing working relationship (organization structure) that enable the employees and the entire unit, to work with maximum efficiency and effectiveness
  • Staffing
    • stationing people to work in positions provided by the organizational structure.
    • defining work-force requirements, appraising, recruiting, compensating, training, etc.
  • Controlling
    • 3 steps:
    • 1 measuring progress toward an objective 衡量实现目标的进展情况 from formal and informal reports
    • 2 evaluating what remains to be done 评估仍需完成的工作 find causes and possible ways to act on deviations from planned performance
    • 3 taking the necessary corrective action to achieve or exceed (from an unfavorable trend)采取必要的纠正措施
  • Directing
    • Implementing and carrying out of approved plans that are necessary to achieve or exceed objectives.
    • Staffing: seeing that a qualified person is selected for each position.
    • Training: teaching individuals and groups how to fulfil their duties and responsibilities.
    • Supervising: giving others day-to-day instruction, guidance, and discipline as required.
    • Delegating: assigning work, responsibility, and authority, so that others can make maximum utilization of their abilities.
    • Motivating: Encouraging others to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.
    • Counselling: holding private discussions with others about how he/she might do better work, solve a personal problem, or realize his/her ambitions.
    • Coordinating: seeing that activities are carried out in relation to their importance and with a minimum of conflict.

image-20211110145545075.png

Pros and Cons of traditional management

image-20211110152125410.png

The department at a same level is parallel, which means that there can be some fake information deliverd

Elements of engineering management

  • project ~
  • quality ~
  • safety ~
  • risk ~
  • configuration ~
  • value ~
  • strategic ~

Stakeholders

Anyone who will be affected by the outcome of the project is a stakeholder.

There can be negative stakeholders.

Organizational stakeholders

executive officers, line managers, employee unions

Product/market stakeholder

Customers, suppliers, local committees, government, general public

Capital market stakeholders

资本市场利益相关者

Shareholders, creditors, banks, etc.

Project Management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, methods, experience, tools andccc techniques on project activities to meet the project objectives.

Portfolio {Programs {Projects}}

Definition of Project

A series of activities and tasks that have

  • a specific objective to be completecd within certain specifications
  • defined start & end dates (or timeline) and is temporary
  • funding limits (limited cost) / a defined scope
  • at a desired standard
  • consume (i.e. money, people, equipment)
  • multifunctional
  • unique, not a daily routine (this is an operation)

*Where do projects come from?

  • New Technology
  • Business Need
  • Strategy Opportunity
  • Political Changes
  • Legal Requirements
  • Etc.

*Project Constraints

Classic Triple Constraint Triangle

A strain on one of the core constraints will affect one or more of other constraints.

image-20211116183551451.png

  • time
  • quality
  • cost
  • risk
  • scope
  • resources

Project Management Office

A PMO is a group or department that defines and maintains standards for project management within the organization.

Definition of Standards

A standard is “a document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that proves, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results.”

standards establish the base dimensions and characteristics of a product.

specify guidance or requirements for processes used to make or deliver products and for measuring

Quality standards should be well defined and accessbile

Functions

Project management is

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Directing
  • Controlling

of a company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives.

5 Procedures or phases

  • Project initiation
    • Feasibility study (human ability, resources, etc.) or project assessment
    • selection of best project given resource limits
    • identify deliverables and stakeholders
    • recognizing the benefits of the project
    • preparation of the documents to sanction (permission, approval) the project
    • assigning the project manager
  • Project planning
    • definition of work requirements, quality and quantity
    • definition of resources (money, land, HR, material, equipment, etc.) needed
    • scheduling the activities
    • evaluation of risks
  • Project execution
    • negotiating for the project team members
    • directing and managing the work
    • helping team members to improve
  • Project monitoring and control (which is a continuously procedure, happening in all phases)
    • tracking and evaluating progress
    • comparing actual outcome to predicted ones
    • analyzing variances and impacts
    • making adjustment (work out schedule slippages)
  • Project closure
    • verifying all tasks accomplished
    • contractual closure of the contract
    • financial closure of the charge numbers
    • administrative closure of the paperwork
    • prepare and share final project report
    • collect lessons learned
    • obtain feedback from relevant stakeholders

*Types of management

Predictive life cycle / waterfall model / fully plan driven life cycle

The project takes a phase by phase approach whereby the work on each phase is completed before moving onto the next phase.

一个接着一个做

Iterative and incremental life cycle

The project team can start working on a single set of requirements once they are signed off instead of waiting for entire requirements to be freezed.

The outcome is a partial product.

Adaptive life cycle

the project will take the phase by phase approach but multiple times.

Pros and Cons

Benefits

  • Identification of functional responsibilities to ensure all activities accounted
  • Minimizing the need for continuous reporting
  • Identification of time limits for scheduling
  • Identification of a methodology for trade-off analysis
  • Measurement of accomplishment against plans
  • Early identification of problems so that corrective action may follow
  • Improved estimating capability for future planning
  • Knowing when objectives cannot be met or will be exceeded

Obstacles

  • Project complexity
  • Customers’ special requirements and scope changes
  • Organizational restructuring
  • Project risks
  • Changes in technology
  • Forward planning and pricing

Types of projects

  • civil or chemical engineering and construction projects
  • Manufacturing projects (AE Eng…)

  • Management projects (IT, marketing…)

  • Projects for pure scientific research projects (high risk, high investment, unpredictable outcome)

Successful PM

  • Schedule: within allocated time period
  • Cost: Within the budgeted cost
  • Quality: At the proper performance of specification/standard level
  • Stakeholders Satisfaction: accepted by customer/user (by surveys?)
    • Note that not all stakeholders will always be satisfied.
  • mutually agreed upon scope changes
  • without disturbing the main work flow of the organization
  • without changing the corporate culture

Fundamentals of managing process

  • identifying the primary process of the organization
  • naming the owners of each process
  • mapping the flow of each process
  • specifying the metrics used to control and measure the outputs and effectiveness of each process
  • determining the impact of each process and its interaction with each other process
  • assessing the effect each process has on the organization’s desired outcomes
  • having and implementing a plan for improving processes in which strategic improvement is worthwhile
标题:AERO1004 Notes
作者:IKK
除转载和特殊声明外,所有文章采用 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0协议
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